Aboriginal Populations in the Mind provides a cogent analysis of the assumptions concerning race embedded within the foundations of psychoanalysis. Brickman explores how the racial discourse of late nineteenth-century anthropology found its way into Freud’s work, where it came to play an often overlooked role in his conceptions of the mind. She argues that the common psychoanalytic concept of “primitivity” as an early stage of psychological development unavoidably carried with it anthropological implications, leading “primitivity” to be understood by Freud—as it often is still today—in racial terms. Relating the racial subtext she finds in Freud’s thought to his writings on gender and religion, she demonstrates how this subtext relates to the broader framework of the project of psychoanalysis. Finally, she demonstrates the role played by these racial assumptions in the clinical relationship, and points to contemporary developments in psychoanalysis that lend themselves to the possibility of a disengagement from this legacy.